Scientific misconduct

Scientific misconduct is the violation of the standard codes of scholarly conduct and ethical behavior in professional scientific research. A Lancet review on Handling of Scientific Misconduct in Scandinavian countries provides the following sample definitions: (reproduced in The COPE report 1999.)

Danish definition: “Intention or gross negligence leading to fabrication of the scientific message or a false credit or emphasis given to a scientist”
Swedish definition: “Intention[al] distortion of the research process by fabrication of data, text, hypothesis, or methods from another researcher’s manuscript form or publication; or distortion of the research process in other ways.”

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The consequences of scientific misconduct can be damaging for both perpetrators and any individual who exposes it. In addition there are public health implications attached to the promotion of medical or other interventions based on dubious research findings.

Read more on Wikipedia

Piltdown Man

The Piltdown Man was a paleoanthropological hoax in which bone fragments were presented as the fossilised remains of a previously unknown early human.

In 1912 amateur archaeologist Charles Dawson claimed he had discovered the “missing link” between ape and man. After finding a section of a human-like skull in Pleistocene gravel beds near Piltdown, East Sussex, Dawson contacted Arthur Smith Woodward, Keeper of Geology at the Natural History Museum. Dawson and Smith Woodward made further discoveries at the site which they connected to the same individual, including a jawbone, more skull fragments, a set of teeth and primitive tools.

Smith Woodward reconstructed the skull fragments and hypothesised that they belonged to a human ancestor from 500,000 years ago. The discovery was announced at a Geological Society meeting and was given the Latin name Eoanthropus dawsoni (“Dawson’s dawn-man”). The questionable significance of the assemblage remained the subject of considerable controversy until it was conclusively exposed in 1953 as a forgery. It was found to have consisted of the altered mandible and some teeth of an orangutan deliberately combined with the cranium of a fully developed, though small-brained, modern human.

The Piltdown hoax is prominent for two reasons: the attention it generated around the subject of human evolution, and the length of time, 45 years, that elapsed from its alleged initial discovery to its definitive exposure as a composite forgery.

Impure Placebos

Out of 783 doctors, 12% said they had used “pure” placebo (sugar pills, saline injections) while 97% had used “impure placebos” (prescribing drugs without scientific basis, like antibiotics for viruses). More than three-quarters said they did so at least once a week, and many didn’t have an ethical problem with deceiving patients if treatments were effective.

Ben Schiller

A study of Danish general practitioners found that 48% had prescribed a placebo at least 10 times in the past year. The most frequently prescribed placebos were presented as antibiotics for viral infections, and vitamins for fatigue. Specialists and hospital-based physicians reported much lower rates of placebo use. A 2004 study in the British Medical Journal of physicians in Israel found that 60% used placebos in their medical practice, most commonly to “fend off” requests for unjustified medications or to calm a patient. The accompanying editorial concluded, “We cannot afford to dispense with any treatment that works, even if we are not certain how it does.” Other researchers have argued that open provision of placebos for treating ADHD in children can be effective in maintaining ADHD children on lower stimulant doses in the short term.
(Wikipedia on Placebo)

What is the Speed of Gravity?

Quantum experiments have long demonstrated that subatomic particles somehow “know” about each other instantly, and at great distances. Institutional science utilizes terms such as quantum entanglement and spooky action to describe the phenomena. But the Electric Universe theory offers a very different perspective. The speed of light limit to communication imposed by the theory of relativity is not a universal speed limit. In this Space News episode, Nicholas Sykes elaborates the fundamental differences in this regard between those of the Electric Universe and standard cosmology.

The RetroPsychoKinesis Project

persistenceofmemory

The more generally-defined effect known as psychokinesis (PK) has been studied extensively since the 1930’s when J.B. Rhine (Duke University) began systematically testing claims that seemingly random events such as dice and coin throws are subject to subtle psychic influences. His succesor, Helmut Schmidt, increased the rigour and efficiency of these experiments by introducing an electronic random number generator which used subatomic decay processes in order to generate data of the most fundamentally “random” nature. One must keep in mind that the issue of randomness is a difficult one – the interpretation of probabilities, the seeming effectiveness of statistical methods, and the fundamental role which probabilities play in quantum mechanical models of objective reality are all problems closely related to this work. Schmidt went on to run experiments similar to the original ones (PK effects on electronically generated random data), the only diference being that the data was prerecorded (and, importantly, unobserved), rather than generated in “real time” as the experiments were carred out.

Despite being extraordinarily counterintuitive, the results suggested strongly that unobserved random events which occured in the past are subject to psychokinetic influence – in other words, the human mind can in some (limited) sense “influence” or at least “select” the past.

Read more about the The RetroPsychoKinesis Project

True random numbers can be produced by various sources. The original RetroPsychoKinesis Project used a radioactive source. Later they build their TRNG Units with electronic components like the Zener diode.

Zener diode reverse breakdown is due to electron quantum tunnelling caused by a high strength electric field. Exactly this phenomenon creates true random numbers which remains in a quantum state as long as they are not observed. Note that this would never break the law of energy conservation.

Quantum tunnelling is among the central non trivial quantum effects in Quantum biology. Here it is important both as electron tunnelling and proton tunnelling. Electron tunnelling is a key factor in many biochemical redox reactions (photosynthesis, cellular respiration) as well as enzymatic catalysis while proton tunnelling is a key factor in spontaneous mutation of DNA.

Wikipedia on Quantum Tunnelling in biological systems

It is the mind that generates physical reality.

However real it may seem, it is, in the final analysis, all in the mind. We never experience the physical world directly; all we ever know is the image of the world generated in our awareness. And that image is no more “out there” than are the images of our dreams.

Peter Russel, Consciousness and Reality

In idealism the mind takes the central position and plays the most crucial role. Instead of an epiphenomenon of the chemistry of the brain, all matter, space and time are generated by the immaterial mind.

Biocentrism states that life and biology are central to being, reality, and the cosmos—consciousness creates the universe rather than the other way around. It asserts that current theories of the physical world do not work, and can never be made to work, until they fully account for life and consciousness. While physics is considered fundamental to the study of the universe, and chemistry fundamental to the study of life, biocentrism claims that scientists will need to place biology before the other sciences to produce a theory of everything.

Wikipedia on Robert Lanza’s theory of Biocentrism

So when on atomic level some processes occurs which “produces” random numbers, this numbers remains in a quantum state as long they are not observed. This means that they can be stored on a harddisk or USB-drive and they still remain in this quantum state, which is object of change retroactively back in time. As long a quantum state is not determined by an measurement, it is like time does not propagate for this unit. The entire cosmic consciousness takes the liberty of ignoring the state of this single unit, maybe because it is not crucial for it’s environment.

But how far can we go?
The question arise how long a package of non observed random numbers remains in this fuzzy state? For example what would happen if this data is compressed (zipped)? A compression algorithm would evaluate the data in some way and creating a restriction to it’s fuzziness. A very high order in data, like that of an image of a chessboard, reduces the size of the file after compression more than it is possible from a absolute random generated image. The reason is that a compression algorithm search for patterns which can be described with less data. A big black square on a white background can be described very easily. Instead random generated pixels in different colors cannot be reduced without loss of information.

We could ask: But what if we do not take a look on the size of the data after compression? Or what if we develop a program which embeds the compressed data always in a file of the same size? Would this preserve all the data in it’s quantum state?

Let’s go even further. When we use the random numbers for generating a word (sequence of characters), which should be later on determined by an “talented” observer, but we print the word on paper beforehand, will the data remain in a quantum state until the person decides which word the data should collapse to? This depends on the type of printer. A laser printer or a thermal printer don’t give a distinguished sound while printing a specific word. But a dot matrix printing would for sure determine at least a certain range of possibilities the TRNG data contains. Only the fact that we hear the little dots of the print head when they strike through an ink-soaked cloth ribbon against the paper is more than enough “data” to determine an outcome.

I came to the conclusion that indeterminism in quantum mechanics is only allowed as long it serves it purpose to sustain life and more important to sustain the free will.

So what means “unobserved” in the quantum world? While reading Robert Lanza’s book on Biocentrism I came to the conclusion that indeterminism in quantum mechanics is only allowed as long it serves it purpose to sustain life and more important to sustain the free will. Our mind changes probability outcomes from pure random states inside microtubules in our neurons. This allows our mind to “telepathically” induce our brain to move our body and to express our emotions. Free will exists on an higher level than the lower physical reality and our mind interact with this order we know as physical reality. But physical reality does not exist as a independent realm. It is in our minds. The problem is, that most of us still believe that we are isolated from each other. And this is the main problem of materialism, which cannot understand because of their so restricted axiom.

From the point of view of scientific idealism, where mind is the base of physical reality, quantum indeterminacy is necessary for life. In contrast to materialism, it is not necessary to just fill up a incompleteness in the description of a physical system, but a freedom of choice. By accepting this special role of the undetermined state for life, it can finally be identified as what alchemists already knew as “prima materia”, the primitive formless base of all matter similar to chaos, the quintessence, or aether. And from this concept it is not far to the “world spirit” or anima mundi, which according to several systems of thought, is an intrinsic connection between all living things on the planet. The underlying framework has many names, like cosmic consciousness or collective unconsciousness (Jung).

This could establish a totally new branch of science, where one is able to form a idea, indeed give it a “form” and not only “form a idea”, and from there stabilize the “thoughtform” and materialize it. Metaphysics is probably the best name for this science. The raw material is immaterial, fuzzy, chaotical, becomes by the work of an individual or by an established natural process ordered, stable, visible and touchable. Is this not what happens all the time in biological systems like for example photosynthesis? And could it be, that everything happens in some way retroactively?

The Curious Case of Charles Darwin and Homeopathy

In 1849, Charles Darwin was so ill that he was unable to work one out of every 3 days, and after having various troubling symptoms for 2–12 years, he wrote to a friend that he was ‘going the way of all flesh’. He sought treatment from Dr James Manby Gully, a medical doctor who used water cure and homeopathic medicines. Despite being highly skeptical of these treatments, he experienced a dramatic improvement in his health, though some of his digestive and skin symptoms returned various times in his life. He grew to appreciate water cure, but remained skeptical of homeopathy, even though his own experiments on insectivore plants using what can be described as homeopathic doses of ammonia salts surprised and shocked him with their significant biological effect. Darwin even expressed concern that he should publish these results. Two of Darwin’s sons were as incredulous as he was, but their observations confirmed the results of his experiments.

He found that solutions of certain salts of ammonia stimulated the glands of the plant’s tentacles and caused the plant to turn inward. He made this solution more and more dilute, but the plant still was able to detect the presence of the salt.

read more here

The very special interest of some scientists

Brian David Josephson

Brian David Josephson, best known for his pioneering work on superconductivity and quantum tunnelling and awarded for the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1973 for his prediction of the Josephson effect.

Josephson became interested in philosophy of mind in the late sixties and, in particular, in the mind–body problem, and is one of the few scientists to argue that parapsychological phenomena (telepathy, psychokinesis and other paranormal themes) may be real.

Josephson became involved in the mid-seventies with a group of physicists associated with the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory at the University of California, which used ideas from quantum physics, particularly Bell’s theorem and quantum entanglement, to explore issues such as action at a distance, clairvoyance, precognition, remote viewing and psychokinesis.

Josephson has expressed support for the idea that water has a memory, since attending a conference at which French immunologist Jacques Benveniste first proposed it.

He also supported the idea that cold fusion could work (original work of Martin Fleischmann).

David Joseph Bohm

David Joseph Bohm was an American scientist who has been described as one of the most significant theoretical physicists of the 20th century and who contributed unorthodox ideas to quantum theory, neuropsychology and the philosophy of mind. He contributed to the Manhattan Project with his “scattering calculations (of collisions of protons and deuterons)”.

In his book On Creativity, quoting the work of Alfred Korzybski, Bohm expressed the view that “metaphysics is an expression of a world view” and is “thus to be regarded as an art form, resembling poetry in some ways and mathematics in others, rather than as an attempt to say something true about reality as a whole.”

Bohm was keenly aware of various ideas outside the scientific mainstream. In his book Science, Order and Creativity, Bohm referred to the views of various biologists on the evolution of the species, including Rupert Sheldrake. He also even knew the ideas of Wilhelm Reich.

Contrary to many other scientists, Bohm did not a priori exclude the paranormal. Bohm temporarily even held Uri Geller’s bending of keys and spoons to be possible, prompting warning remarks by his colleague Basil Hiley that this might undermine the scientific credibility of their work in physics. Martin Gardner reported this in a Skeptical Inquirer article, and also critiqued the views of Krishnamurti, whom Bohm had encountered in 1959 and had many subsequent exchanges with. Gardner said that Bohm’s view of the interconnectedness of mind and matter (on one occasion summarized as “Even the electron is informed with a certain level of mind”) “flirted with panpsychism”.

Rupert Sheldrake

Rupert Sheldrake is an English author and he worked as a biochemist and cell biologist at Cambridge University from 1967 to 1973 and as principal plant physiologist at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics until 1978. He investigated auxins, a class of phytohormones that plays a role in plant vascular cell differentiation, and published a number of papers related to the topic.

Sheldrake proposed that through “morphic resonance”, various perceived phenomena, particularly biological ones, become more probable the more often they occur, and that biological growth and behaviour thus become guided into patterns laid down by previous similar events. As a result, he suggested, newly-acquired behaviours can be passed down to future generations (even nonlocal) − a biological proposition akin to the Lamarckian inheritance theory.

In 1994, Sheldrake proposed a list of Seven Experiments That Could Change the World, subtitled “A do-it-yourself guide to revolutionary science”. He encouraged lay people to conduct research and argued that experiments similar to his own could be conducted with limited expense. Seven Experiments contained the seed of Sheldrake’s next book, Dogs That Know When Their Owners Are Coming Home (1999), which covered his research into proposed telepathy between humans and animals, particularly dogs. Sheldrake suggests that such interspecies telepathy is a real phenomenon and that morphic fields are responsible for it.

Sir Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton was an English physicist and mathematician (described in his own day as a “natural philosopher”) who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (“Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy”), first published in 1687, laid the foundations for classical mechanics. Newton made seminal contributions to optics, and he shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for the development of calculus.

In the character of Morton Opperly in “Poor Superman” (1951), speculative fiction author Fritz Leiber says of Newton, “Everyone knows Newton as the great scientist. Few remember that he spent half his life muddling with alchemy, looking for the philosopher’s stone. That was the pebble by the seashore he really wanted to find.”

Of an estimated ten million words of writing in Newton’s papers, about one million deal with alchemy. Many of Newton’s writings on alchemy are copies of other manuscripts, with his own annotations. Alchemical texts mix artisanal knowledge with philosophical speculation, often hidden behind layers of wordplay, allegory, and imagery to protect craft secrets. Some of the content contained in Newton’s papers could have been considered heretical by the church (yes!).

Wilhelm Reich
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Wilhelm Reich was an Austrian psychoanalyst, a member of the second generation of analysts after Sigmund Freud. The author of several influential books, most notably Character Analysis (1933), The Mass Psychology of Fascism (1933) and The Sexual Revolution (1936), Reich became known as one of the most radical figures in the history of psychiatry.

It was shortly after he arrived in New York in 1939 that Reich first said he had discovered a biological or cosmic energy, an extension of Freud’s idea of the libido. He called it “orgone energy” or “orgone radiation,” and the study of it “orgonomy.” In 1940 he began to build insulated Faraday cages, “orgone accumulators,” that he said would concentrate the orgone. The earliest boxes were for laboratory animals. The first human-sized, five-foot-tall box was built in December 1940, and set up in the basement of his house. Turner writes that it was made of plywood lined with rock wool and sheet iron, and had a chair inside and a small window. The boxes had multiple layers of these materials, which caused the orgone concentration inside the box to be three to five times stronger than in the air, Reich said.

The accumulators were tested on plant growth and mice with cancer. Reich wrote to his supporters in July 1941 that orgone is “definitely able to destroy cancerous growth. This is proved by the fact that tumors in all parts of the body are disappearing or diminishing. No other remedy in the world can claim such a thing.”

The Spiral Periodic Table

In this theory the elements of the Periodic Table are standing waves over a period of time. Time is continuously being formed by the spontaneous absorption and emission of light waves of EMR. This forms a universal process of spherical symmetry forming and breaking that forms the spiral patterns we see in our everyday life with each element of the Periodic Table having a set position forming the curvature of these spirals. With Hydrogen at the centre a Spiral Periodic Table with the noble gases and the different groups of elements radiating out like spokes from the centre of a wheel.

In this video there is also Walter Russell diagram of a Periodic Table and the chemist John Newlands Spiral Octave Periodic Table.