Probability theory

Probability Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur. Probability is quantified as a number between 0 and 1 (where 0 indicates impossibility and 1 indicates certainty). The higher the probability of an event, the more certain that the event will occur. A simple example is the tossing of a fair …

The field is the more fundamental entity

I will quote Barak Shoshany answer to the question “What is the relationship between a particle and a field?” on Quora: A field is a mathematical entity that exists throughout space and time. A classical field is simply a function that has a numerical value at each point in spacetime. Think, for example, of the …

Anti-Zeno Effect

Unstable quantum systems are predicted to exhibit a short time deviation from the exponential decay law. This universal phenomenon has led to the prediction that frequent measurements during this nonexponential period could inhibit decay of the system, one form of the quantum Zeno effect. Subsequently, it was predicted that an enhancement of decay due to …

Cancer drugs do not even extend life for 10 weeks

Patients, advocates, and care providers are growing increasingly frustrated that new and often very pricey cancer drugs do little to improve patients’ survival, Kaiser Health News reports. For instance, the 72 cancer therapies approved between 2002 and 2014 only bought patients an extra 2.1 months of life compared with older drugs, researchers have found. And …

Hyperacuity, transcending the size limits set by retinal pixels

The sharpness of our senses is defined by the finest detail we can discriminate. Visual acuity is measured by the smallest letters that can be distinguished on a chart and is governed by the anatomical spacing of the mosaic of sensory elements on the retina. Yet spatial distinctions can be made on a finer scale …

Most Abrupt Ever carbon-14 increase in the earth’s atmosphere

An international team led by researchers at Nagoya University, along with US and Swiss colleagues, has identified a new type of solar event and dated it to the year 5480 BC; they did this by measuring carbon-14 levels in tree rings, which reflect the effects of cosmic radiation on the atmosphere at the time. They …

Structuralism

In sociology, anthropology and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that elements of human culture must be understood in terms of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure. It works to uncover the structures that underlie all the things that humans do, think, perceive, and feel. Alternatively, as summarized by philosopher Simon Blackburn, structuralism …