Gaia Hypothesis

The Gaia hypothesis, also known as Gaia theory or Gaia principle, proposes that all organisms and their inorganic surroundings on Earth are closely integrated to form a single and self-regulating complex system, maintaining the conditions for life on the planet. The scientific investigation of the Gaia hypothesis focuses on observing how the biosphere and the …

Action at a distance

In physics, action at a distance is the interaction of two objects which are separated in space with no known mediator of the interaction. This term was used most often in the context of early theories of gravity and electromagnetism to describe how an object responds to the influence of distant massive or charged bodies. …

Phenomenon

A phenomenon (from Greek φαινόμενoν), plural phenomena, is any observable occurrence. Phenomena are often, but not always, understood as “appearances” or “experiences“. These are themselves sometimes understood as involving qualia. The term came into its modern philosophical usage through Immanuel Kant, who contrasted it with noumenon (for which he used the term “Ding an sich“, …

Retrocausality

Retrocausality (also called retro-causation, retro-chronal causation, backward causation, and similar terms) is any of several hypothetical phenomena or processes that reverse causality, allowing an effect to occur before its cause. Retrocausality is primarily a thought experiment in philosophy of science based on elements of physics, addressing the question: Can the future affect the present, and …

Pregeometry

In physics, a pregeometry is a structure from which geometry develops. The term was championed by John Archibald Wheeler in the 1960s and 1970s as a possible route to a theory of quantum gravity. Since quantum mechanics allowed a metric to fluctuate, it was argued that the merging of gravity with quantum mechanics required a …

Synergy

Synergy may be defined as two or more things functioning together to produce a result not independently obtainable. The term synergy comes from the Greek word synergia συνεργία from synergos, συνεργός, meaning “working together“. Synergy produces a effect greater than the sum of all participating parts In the natural world, synergistic phenomena are ubiquitous, ranging …

Morphic Fields and Morphic Resonance

Morphic field “Morphic field” is a term introduced by Rupert Sheldrake. He proposes that there is a field within and around a “morphic unit” which organizes its characteristic structure and pattern of activity. According to Sheldrake, the “morphic field” underlies the formation and behaviour of “holons” and “morphic units“, and can be set up by …

Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a mathematical description of the magnetic influence of electric currents and magnetic materials. The magnetic field at any given point is specified by both a direction and a magnitude (or strength); as such it is a vector field. The magnetic field is most commonly defined in terms of the Lorentz force …

Macrocosm and Microcosm

Macrocosm and microcosm is an ancient Greek Neo-Platonic schema of seeing the same patterns reproduced in all levels of the cosmos, from the largest scale (macrocosm or universe-level) all the way down to the smallest scale (microcosm or sub-sub-atomic or even metaphysical-level). In the system the mid-point is Man, who summarizes the cosmos. Many ancient …

Quantum Nonlocality

Quantum nonlocality is the phenomenon by which measurements made at a microscopic level necessarily refute one or more notions (often referred to as local realism) that are regarded as intuitively true in classical mechanics. Rigorously, quantum nonlocality refers to quantum mechanical predictions of many-system measurement correlations that cannot be simulated by any local hidden variable …